Acne
Acne is a very common skin condition Black heads, pimples, white heads, bumps and pustules, and cysts are common lesions that occur when pores are clogged by thick oil and dead skin. Thick cosmetics, oily products, can clog the pores. Acne lesions are commonly on the face, neck, chest and back. Acne is very common in teens, but can occur in all age groups. In adolescents changing hormone levels cause oil to thicken and clog pores, causing inflammation, hyper-pigmentation and scarring. To prevent scarring Dermatologists recommend treating acne. Do not pick or squeeze pimples. Washing with a non-prescription Benzoyl Peroxide cleanser and rinsing it off is an excellent first step. Other non-prescription medications also help.Using cosmetics and moisturizers that are not oily and won't clog pores is important. Dermatologists have many prescription medications available depending on the type of acne lesions.

Teen Acne
In adolescence the oil in pores gets thicker and can not get through the pores. Different acne lesions result from where in the pore the blockage occurs and whether acne bacteria cause inflammation.

Adult Acne
Blockages of pores from thick creams, oil, cosmetics, are common causes of acne in adults.

Acne Treatment
Washing twice a day with a cleanser that removes oil and dead skin and kills acne bacteria is a good first step. Over-the-counter Benzoyl Peroxide Cleansers can be very useful. We commonly prescribe topical antibiotics that are applied to the skin and Retinoid creams to promote oil flow. Additionally oral antibiotics are sometimes prescribed.

Actinic Keratoses
Rough and scaly, dry areas of skin on sun-exposed areas of the face, scalp, hands and arms may be actinic keratoses. They can be tiny pinhead size or wide, flesh colored, white, red, brown or a mixture of colors. Caused by cumulative sun damage. These lesions may come and go and improve temporarily by being covered with a moisturizing lotion. It is important to treat them because over time many of these areas progress from being pre-cancerous to become Squamous Cell Carcinomas, the second most common form of skin cancer.

Actinic Keratosis Treatment
Dermatologists have many methods to treat Actinic Keratoses to prevent the change into skin cancer. Freezing with liquid Nitrogen (cryotherapy), removal under local anesthesia and prescription creams are amongst the most effective methods.

Age Spots
Flat brown areas of sun exposed skin typically on the face and hands sometimes called Liver spots. Age spots or Sun spots.

Treatment of Age Spots
Individual spots respond well to cyotherapy with liquid Nitrogen. Larger areas may be treated with a combination of mild chemical peels, medical strength bleaching creams, sunscreens and protective clothing.

Seborrheic Dermatitis

Seborrheic dermatitis is a mild inflammatory skin condition affecting mostly hair bearing areas of the face, scalp, chest and groin. Common symptoms are scaling, itching and flaky red skin. On the scalp the scaling is dandruff. On the chin, eyebrows and mustache areas redness, scaling and pimples can appear.

Treatment
A dandruff shampoo with active ingredients Zinc Pyrithione (Head and Shoulders or DHS zinc) or ketoconazole (Nizoral shampoo) cleans the scalp. A cortisone liquid or a cream mixed with water works well to reduce itching and redness.
Medical Dermatology Definitions
ALAN M. FISCHER, M.D.
DERMATOLOGY & SURGERY OF THE SKIN
COPYRIGHT © 2014 ALAN FISCHER, M.D.
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